Reading and dating roman imperial coins by zander h klawans
The denominations of all early bronze coins contained the prow of a ship on the reverse. The as depicted Janus; the semis, Jupiter; the triens, Minerva; the quadrans, Hercules; the sextans, Mercury; the uncia, Roma.
As: The base bronze coin Semis: worth 1/2 an as Triens: worth 1/2 of an as Quadrans: worth 1/4 of an as Sextans: worth 1/6 of an as Uncia: worth 1/12 of an as Dupondius: worth two asses Tripondius: worth three asses Quadrussis: worth four asses Quincussis: worth five asses Decussis: worth 10 asses Follis: introduced by Emperor Diocletian; bronze with a silver wash Centenionalis: introduced by Emperor Constantine I; bronze with a silver wash Francesco Gnecchi states that the first silver coins were struck in 268 BCE.
Personifications are human figures that represent qualities such as justice, fortune, honour or happiness.
Few reverses contain inscriptions, so look for certain attributes to correctly identify the figures.
For example, Jupiter (Zeus in the Greek tradition) holds a lightning bolt; Justice holds scales. However, you can determine the year that a particular coin was struck using two methods.
Klawans is currently considered a "single author." If one or more works are by a distinct, homonymous authors, go ahead and split the author.
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